Mengikuti anjuran Libur dan Cuti Bersama Lebaran 2023 yang diumumkan oleh Pemerintah RI, kami mau mengumumkan batas akhir jadwal pengambilan dan penerimaan contoh uji dan juga jadwal libur bersama PT Bogor Labs.
Kami segenap keluarga besar PT Bogor Labs mengucapkan Minal Aidin Wal Faidzin, mohon maaf lahir dan batin.
Selamat menyambut hari raya idul fitri 1444 H / 2023 M.
Salah satu aspek penting yang merupakan indikator baik dan nyaman atau tidaknya suatu tempat ditentukan dari kualitas udara tempat tersebut. Pencemaran udara merupakan salah satu faktor kerusakan lingkungan yang dapat menurunkan kualitas udara. Pencemaran udara terjadi karena masuknya unsur-unsur berbahaya ke dalam udara atau atmosfer bumi yang dapat berupa padatan halus (debu, pasir, asap dan sebagainya) yang melayang-layang atau berada di atmosfer yang berasal dari asap, pasir/debu dari bahan bangunan, jalan, tanah, dan juga gas pembuangan kendaraan bermotor maupun industri dimana keberadaannya sebagai pencemar udara dapat mengancam kesehatan (Solihah, dkk., 2021 ; WHO, 2018).
Bogor merupakan salah satu kota yang tercemar di dunia (Pun, dkk., 2019). Kedudukan Bogor sebagai wilayah sekitar Ibu Kota Indonesia menjadikan Bogor sebagai incaran para perantau dari berbagai daerah yang datang untuk mengadu nasib. Bogor, dalam kesehariannya, banyak sekali kegiatan yang banyak menyumbang polutan ke atmosfer. Menurut Hanifah pada 1 Oktober 2021 dalam artikelnya yang di muat di laman Berita.99.co, Kota Bogor merupakan wilayah dengan udara paling tercemar, faktor utama yang meningkatkan jumlah pencemar udara di kota Bogor berasal dari emisi kendaraan bermotor (Ananta, 2019).
Mudik atau pulang kampung pada saat lebaran merupakan suatu tradisi untuk berkumpul bersama keluarga dalam suasana perayaan hari raya Idul Fitri. Fenomena mudik lebaran di Indonesia terjadi karena para perantau berbondong-bondong meninggalkan kota rantauan dan kembali ke kampung halaman. Dalam hal ini, pemudik biasanya menggunakan kendaraan bermotor. Tercatat oleh Kementerian Perhubungan pada tahun 2022 lalu jumlah pemudik yang meninggalkan Jabodetabek sebanyak 2.25 juta kendaraan. Peningkatan frekuensi arus mudik dari Jabodetabek tersebut berimbas pada berkurangnya aktivitas manusia di wilayah Jabodetabek pada periode lebaran tahun 2022 lalu (rentang waktu 25 April 2022 – 9 Mei 2022), hal ini berdampak terhadap meningkatnya kualitas udara di Jabodetabek karena berkurangnya jumlah sumber pencemar (Waryatno, dkk., 2022). Data di atas menunjukkan bahwa hal yang kurang lebih sama akan terjadi setiap tahunnya, dimana tingkat pencemaran udara di Kota Bogor pasti akan menurun saat musim mudik tiba karena diprediksikan mudik 2023 nanti jumlah pemudik yang meninggalkan Kota Bogor sekitar 771.144 kendaraan.
Lalu kemanakah kemanakah polusi udara selama musim mudik tiba?
Menurut peneliti perubahan iklim dan kesehatan lingkungan Universitas Indonesia, Budi Haryanto saat dihubungi oleh Antara News, pada 26 Maret 2015, tingkat pencemaran udara berpindah ke jalur mudik. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemacetan. Bila kendaraan melaju dengan kecepatan dibawah 25 km/jam, maka emisi yang dikeluarkan semakin besar sehingga menambah tingkat polusi udara. Sebaliknya, kadar emisi akan minim bila kendaraan dapat melaju pada kecepatan 5 – 100 km/jam.
Kepala Bidang Informasi Kualitas Udara Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) Mangasa Naibaho juga mengemukakan hal senada dimana peningkatan gas buang akan meningkat di jalur transportasi arus mudik.
Para pemudik diminta untuk mewaspadai pencemaran udara pada saat mesin kendaraan hidup ketika berhenti akibat kemacetan karena paparan emisi kendaraan saat macet bisa berisiko kematian, ungkap Direktur Eksekutif Komite Penghapusan Bensin Bertimbal (KPBB) Ahmad Safruddin pada Kamis, 22 Juni 2017, Jakarta. Kendaraan berhenti dengan mesin hidup ada potensi pembakaran tidak sempurna yang mengakibatkan emisi hidrokarbon bisa 40-70 % lebih tinggi. Juga ada emisi karbon monoksida dan nitrogen oksida (NOx). Bahkan tingkat pencemaran di dalam kabin mobil justru bisa lima kali lipat lebih tinggi daripada yang berada di luar mobil. Adapun bahan beracun dalam polutan emisi gas buang kendaraan bermotor antara lain Partikulat atau Particulate Matter (PM) 2,5, Sulfur Oksida (SO2), Nitrogen Dioksida (NO2), karbon monoksida (CO), Ozone (O3), hidrokarbon (HC) dan timbal (Pb).
Adapun bagi penumpang mobil, gejala keracunan CO yaitu pusing-pusing. Lama-kelamaan bisa lemas, mengantuk, dan bisa berakibat kematian. Orang yang berada di luar mobil lebih terpapar PM 2,5 dan NOx, diawali dengan gejala sakit dan sesak pada rongga pernafasan.
Lalu tindakan apa yang seharusnya dilakukan?
Dalam keadaan macet, apabila terjebak dalam kendaraan, apabila kendaraan bermotor berhenti selama 1 menit, mesin harus dimatikan. Kalau lebih dari 30 menit, harus keluar dan menjauh sekitar 30 – 35 meter dari kendaraan.
Kondisi udara yang tercemar yang dihirup oleh para pemudik tidak terlalu parah bila ada angin bertiup kencang pada area tersebut, hal ini disebabkan karena udara tercemar dapat terdistorsi kemana-mana dan terencerkan konsentrasinya bila tertiup angin dengan kecepatan lebih dari 5 knot alias 9,26 km/jam, apalagi pada area terbuka seperti jalan tol, tanah lapang, atau pantai.
Namun, meskipun begitu, dihimbau kepada para pemudik agar tetap menggunakan masker pada saat sedang beristirahat di rest area karena banyaknya jumlah volume kendaraan yang kemungkinan akan parkir beristirahat saat perjalanan mudik dan jangan lupa untuk selalu mencari udara terbuka saat sedang terjadi kemacetan, bila gejala keracunan diatas terasa, baiknya berhenti dan mencari posko kesehatan terdekat.
Selamat mudik dan berlibur lebaran tahun 2023 dengan keluarga ! 🙂
A new online edition of the EFI Lookout Station’s Solution Hack for Journalists begins on 4 March, bringing together 16 journalists from all around the world.
The programme takes a unique approach where journalists are invited to discuss, engage and collaborate with experts and other journalists to identify the issues with today’s economic model and possible solution areas. The ultimate goal over the three online workshops is to explore the role journalists and media can play in making positive impacts on our planet.
Mentors include investigative reporter Alexandra Heal, BBC journalist Richard Fisher, El Tímpano founder Madeleine Bair, and Science Africa founder Otula Owuor. The programme will also see contributions by experts from EFI and Sitra, the Finnish Innovation Fund, as well as ThinkForest president Janez Potočnik.
The programme is the second Solution Hack collaboration between Sitra and EFI, following on from the Solution Hack for Journalists organised in Helsinki in 2019 which explored the Finnish model of sustainability, and also offered training on the Disruptive Design Method (DDM).
The training is part of a wider collaboration between Sitra and EFI, which also includes an online digital forum (in partnership also with CIFOR, ICRAF and the Circular Bioeconomy Alliance) on 19 March. The forum, Nature at the heart of a global circular bioeconomy, brings together investors, scientists, forestry, agroforestry and landscape experts, practitioners, community and business leaders and policy makers to explore what it will take to shift to a circular bioeconomic model that supports people and the planet, putting nature at the heart of how we operate.
By Camila Corradi Bracco, Senior Coordinator — Content Development & Program Delivery, GRI
Since the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2016, the role of the private sector in fulfilling the 2030 Agenda has been widely acknowledged, as set out under SDG 12. Yet to assess how companies are actually contributing towards these Global Goals, we need greater transparency on their impacts.
Over the past four years, GRI has championed the participation of companies in measuring their performance on the SDGs. As we look ahead to the Decade of Action needed to achieve the SDGs, it is clear that further progress will be needed, including doing more to increase private sector contributions.
1. Increased clarity on how to engage with the SDGs from a business perspective
2. Improvements in how they measured SDGs performance
3. Better prioritization of the most relevant SDGs
4. More integration of the SDGs into business decision-making processes
However, the findings also indicate that many companies continue to face challenges with understanding and disclosing their SDGs contributions, with opportunities to make corporate reporting more relevant and effective.
Improving data quality and addressing gaps
Reporting on priorities at the SDG target level, within each of the overarching Goals, and linking them to the business strategy, is often missing. Overall, deeper connections between material topics with SDG targets and corporate priorities are needed. We also see there are opportunities to further explore the links between SDG priorities and the contributions of companies in the countries and jurisdictions where they operate.
Most importantly, corporate reporting on the SDGs often focuses on positive contributions that companies make to the SDGs, with a lack of transparency and accountability for negative impacts. This issue was also highlighted by KPMG research in December.
Reporting that has impact
Identifying SDG priorities throughout the value chain is a complex undertaking, as is demonstrating the cause-and-effect relationship between SDG contributions and business performance. Moreover, because of the interconnected and interdependent nature of the SDGs, companies need to identify and take account of synergies and trade-offs between positive and negative impacts.
Efforts to quantify impacts on the SDGs and contextualize them (for example, considering the social thresholds and planetary boundaries) needs strengthened.
That is why it is necessary to move beyond assessing activitiesand outputs, and focus on how to disclose outcomes and impacts.
This is crucial as it enables businesses to manage their performance and demonstrate accountability for their impacts.
Making reporting relevant to stakeholders
There is increasing interest from a wide range of stakeholders in business contribution to the SDGs, including how companies are aligning products, services and business strategy with the SDGs. Policy makers, investors, consumers, labor organizations and civil society all increasingly demand that companies show transparency through providing quality data and balanced reporting.
However, different stakeholders have different expectations and data requests. Steps business can take to provide more strategic and relevant information include:
· Providing aggregated or disaggregated information that allows stakeholders to assess their performance and contribution to the SDGs
· Setting long-term SDG-related performance targets, and regularly reporting on progress
· Clearly demonstrating how the business strategy aligns with the SDGs
Proactive communications on the issues that matter most — to both the company and stakeholders — is crucial.
Not only does provide the necessary information to assess corporate sustainability performance and impact, it also allow stakeholders to make decisions that contribute to the SDGs.
Driving business action through reporting
Inspired by the progress to date and the opportunities still to come, GRI is launching a Business Leadership Forum, to commence in March, on corporate reporting as a driver for achieving the SDGs.
The initiative will offer participating companies practical insights, focusing on how to raise the quality and strategic relevance of their SDG reporting.
The Forum is built around a series of online sessions that will bring together corporate reporters and representatives from key stakeholder groups — including the investment community, governments, regulators, members of the supply chain, civil society and academia.
The experiences of the past four years have shown that both businesses and stakeholders benefit from strategic and relevant SDG-related information. Sustainability reporting is an essential driver of the transformational change that is required to achieve the SDGs. As we look ahead to the Decade of Action and the pandemic recovery phase, the case for meaningful corporate reporting on the SDGs is more compelling than ever before.
December 17, 2020 | ArticleOpen interactive popupHow the voluntary carbon market can help address climate changeOpen interactive popupThe voluntary carbon market is gaining momentum and plays an increasingly important role in limiting global warming. Here’s how.
As business leaders set increasingly ambitious commitments to reduce global greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, a market is developing that can help to achieve them by supplementing companies’ efforts to reduce their own emissions. This is the rapidly growing market for voluntary carbon credits.Sidebar
About the authors
Carbon credits (often referred to as “offsets”) have an important dual role to play in the battle against climate change. They enable companies to support decarbonization beyond their own carbon footprint, thus accelerating the broader transition to a lower-carbon future. They also help finance projects for removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere—delivering negative emissions, which will be needed to neutralize residual emissions that will persist even under the most optimistic scenarios for decarbonization. However, while the voluntary carbon credit market is currently experiencing significant momentum, it is still relatively small. The recently launched report by the Taskforce on Scaling Voluntary Carbon Markets aims to create a blueprint for solutions that could help overcome obstacles to its further growth. (For more about the Taskforce, which McKinsey supports as a knowledge partner, please read our article “Scaling voluntary carbon markets to help meet climate goals.”) This article will explain how carbon credits work and how they can help in the global effort to address climate change.
The dual role of voluntary carbon credits in addressing climate change
Criteria for carbon credits
A carbon credit is a certificate representing one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent that is either prevented from being emitted into the atmosphere (emissions avoidance/reduction) or removed from the atmosphere as the result of a carbon-reduction project. For a carbon-reduction project to generate carbon credits, it needs to demonstrate that the achieved emission reductions or carbon dioxide removals are real, measurable, permanent, additional, independently verified, and unique (see sidebar, “Criteria for carbon credits”). If a project meets these criteria—as specified by independent standards such as Gold Standard and Verified Carbon Standard (VCS)—credits can be issued. The impact of a carbon credit can only be claimed—that is, counted toward a climate commitment—once the credit has been retired (canceled in a registry), after which it can no longer be sold. A carbon credit is considered a “voluntary carbon credit” when it is bought and retired on a voluntary basis rather than as part of a process of compliance with legal obligations.
The proceeds from the sale of voluntary carbon credits enable the development of carbon-reduction projects across a wide array of project types. These include renewable energy; avoiding emissions from fossil-fuel based alternatives; natural climate solutions, such as reforestation, avoided deforestation, or agroforestry; energy efficiency; and resource recovery, such as avoiding methane emissions from landfills or wastewater facilities; among others.
While most of these project types including renewable energy, avoided deforestation, and resource recovery focus on avoiding carbon emissions, others, such as reforestation, focus on removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This is a meaningful difference, illustrating the dual role voluntary carbon credits can play in addressing climate change:
In the short term, voluntary carbon credits from projects focused on emissions avoidance/reduction can help accelerate the transition to a decarbonized global economy, for example by driving investment into renewable energy, energy efficiency, and natural capital. Avoiding emissions is typically the most cost-efficient way to address atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.
In the medium to long term, voluntary carbon credits could play an important role in scaling up carbon dioxide removals (or negative emissions) needed to neutralize residual emissions1 that cannot be further reduced. In a recent analysis, we found that at least 5 gigatons of negative emissions will be needed annually to reach net-zero emissions by 2050. These could be realized through a combination of natural climate solutions such as reforestation (for example, sequestering carbon in trees) and nascent technology-based carbon capture, use, and storage solutions such as direct air capture with carbon storage (DACCS), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). Voluntary carbon credits can help finance the scale-up of these solutions.
The role of voluntary carbon credits in corporate climate commitments
A credible corporate climate commitment begins with setting an emissions reduction target that covers both a company’s direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions: if a company does not already have an emissions baseline from which to set a target, creating one is a necessary first step.
Aligning such a target’s ambition level with the latest climate science is widely seen as best practice. In other words, the target needs to be in line with the level of decarbonization required to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels at a minimum—and ideally be in line with a 1.5-degree pathway, which scientists estimate would reduce the odds of initiating the most dangerous and irreversible effects of climate change. The Science Based Targets initiative has developed methodologies for setting such a target, which have been already adopted by more than 1,000 companies, including many leading multinationals. To achieve the required emissions reductions, companies can pull levers such as improving energy efficiency, transitioning to renewable energy, and addressing value chain emissions.Sidebar
Types of carbon targets
As a next step, a company may commit to a target that involves the use of voluntary carbon credits—either to compensate for emissions that it has not been able to eliminate yet or to neutralize residual emissions that cannot be further reduced due to prohibitive costs or technological limitations. These types of targets come with various designations (for example, carbon neutral, climate neutral, net-zero, carbon negative, climate positive) but they all typically involve a company supplementing reductions achieved within its own carbon footprint by financing reductions elsewhere through the purchase and retirement of voluntary carbon credits (see sidebar, “Types of carbon targets”). By offsetting its remaining emissions in this way, a company can claim it is mitigating its residual impact on the climate. Some, such as Microsoft, have gone further by setting aspirations to make a net-positive impact on the climate.
Scaling voluntary carbon markets to help meet climate goals
Uncovering the relationship between ESG and financial performance through meta-analysis of 1,000+ studies
Meta-studies examining the relationship between environmental, social, and governance (ESG) and financial performance have a decades-long history. Almost all the articles they cover, however, were written before 2015. Those analyses found positive correlations between ESG performance and operational efficiencies, stock performance and lower cost of capital. Five years later, we have seen exponential growth in ESG and impact investing – due in large part to increasing evidence that business strategy focused on material ESG issues is synonymous with high-quality management teams and improved returns.
In collaboration with Rockefeller Asset Management and Casey Clark, CFA (MBA ’17), the NYU Stern Center for Sustainable Business examine the relationship between ESG and financial performance in more than 1,000 research papers from 2015 – 2020.
About the Research Methods Because of the varying research frameworks, metrics and definitions, we decided to take a different approach than previous meta-analyses. We divided the articles into those focused on corporate financial performance (e.g. operating metrics such as ROE or ROA or stock performance for a company or group of companies) and those focused on investment performance (from the perspective of an investor, generally measures of alpha or metrics such as the Sharpe ratio on a portfolio of stocks), to determine if there was a difference in the findings. We also separately reviewed papers and articles focused on low carbon strategies tied to financial performance in order to understand financial performance implications through the lens of a single thematic issue.
1. Improved financial performance due to ESG becomes more noticeable over longer time horizons
We found that our proxy for an implied long-term relationship had a coefficient with a positive sign that is statistically significant. The model suggests that, everything else being constant, a study with an implied long-term focus is 76% more likely to find a positive or neutral result.
2. ESG integration as an investment strategy performs better than negative screening approaches
he sample size of studies on specific portfolio management strategies and asset classes was small, making it challenging to interpret how they would translate into decision-making for an asset manager. The dominant research approach was to find a sample of sustainable funds or indices and compare them to a conventional benchmark.
3. ESG investing provides downside protection, especially during a social or economic crisis
ESG investing appears to provide asymmetric benefits. Investor studies, in particular, seem to demonstrate a strong correlation between lower risk related to sustainability and better financial performance. Recent events have provided unique datasets for researchers.
4. Sustainability initiatives at corporations appear to drive better financial performance due to mediating factors such as improved risk management and more innovation
Sustainability strategies implemented at the corporate level can drive better financial performance through mediating factors—i.e. the sustainability drivers of better financial performance such as more innovation, higher operational efficiency, better risk management, and others, as defined in the Return on Sustainability Investment (ROSI) framework (Atz et al., 2019).
5. Studies indicate that managing for a low carbon future improves financial performance
Research on mitigating climate change through decarbonization strategies is fairly recent, but finds strong evidence for better financial performance for both corporates and investors.
6. ESG disclosure on its own does not drive financial performance
Just 26% of studies that focused on disclosure alone found a positive correlation with financial performance compared to 53% for performance-based ESG measures (e.g. assessing a firm’s performance on issues such as greenhouse gas emission reductions). This result holds in a regression analysis that controls for several factors simultaneously.To download the full report, click here.
On 26 January 2021 the GCF Secretariat launched the Portfolio Performance Management System (PPMS)– a centralised portfolio management system, which aims to increase the efficiency of monitoring and managing performance and risks in GCF projects. The digitalisation of programmatic systems will help GCF and Accredited Entities (AEs) collaborate and report on climate results in a more efficient and effective manner.
In conjunction with the launch and to support AEs in their use of the PPMS, the GCF Secretariat is organizing an Introductory Webinar on the system. The session will be geared to provide information and practical guidance on how your organization can
submit reports such as APRs through the PPMS,
receive GCF feedback & assessment,
respond to the feedback through the PPMS.
The webinar will be held in two sessions in English with live captioning in several languages, allowing for meaningful participation from various regions at the following times:
Session 1: Tuesday, 2 February 2020, 8.00 a.m. KST Time is applicable for AEs based in Pacific, LAC countries
Session 2: Wednesday, 3 February 2020, 6.00 p.m. KST Time is applicable for AEs based in Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Africa
Recordings of the webinar will be available online.
Updated guidance on linking the Sustainable Development Goals with the GRI Standards
It is now even easier for organizations to communicate their efforts to support the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), by using the most widely adopted standards for sustainability reporting – the GRI Standards.
An updated version of Linking the SDGs and the GRI Standards has now published. This free resource gives a breakdown of the targets under each of the 17 SDGs and maps how they correlate against the disclosures in the GRI Standards, including the latest published versions.
“The GRI Standards enable companies to integrate SDGs reporting within their sustainability report and this revised guidance helps them make these connections in a clear and consistent way.
The SDGs address our world’s most pressing sustainability challenges, therefore it is crucial that the contribution of the private sector is both recognized and understood. That is why GRI continues to work with partners and reporting organizations to drive forward the transparency required to support the fulfilment of the SDGs.”
GRI thanks the Government of Sweden for supporting this project through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).
A four-year Action Platform for Reporting on the SDGs, led by GRI and UN Global Compact, was successful in engaging companies and building their capacity. Next up, GRI is launching a Business Leadership Forum, to bring together companies and key stakeholders to leverage the power of corporate reporting to drive action towards accomplishing the SDGs.
Target six of SDG-12 requires all countries to encourage companies to adopt sustainable business practices and include sustainability data in their corporate reporting.